1.7 describe experimental techniques for the separation of mixtures, including simple distillation, fractional distillation, filtration, crystallisation and paper chromatography

Filtration – separates an undissolved solid from a mixture of solid and liquid solution. Eg. sand from water

Evaporation – Separates a dissolved solution from a solution, especially when the solid has similar solubilities in both a hot/cold solvent. Eg. Sodium chloride (Salt) from salt and water 

Crystallisation – separating a dissolved solid from a solution, when the solid is more soluble in hot solvent than cold. Eg. copper sulphate from copper sulphate and water

Simple distillation – Separating a liquid from a solution. Eg. water from sodium chloride and water

Fractional distillation – Separating two or more liquids that are miscible with one another. e.g. ethanol and water from  a mixture of ethanol and water

Paper chromatography – to separate substances with different solubilities in a given solvent – eg. different coloured inks in black ink 


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