2.44 describe the structure of the thorax, including the ribs, intercostal muscles, diaphragm, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and pleural membranes


  • Thorax – part of your body between the neck and abdomen
  • Nasal passages – It warms and cleans, adding moisture to the air
  • Epilottis – stops food from entering the lungs
  • Oesophagus – carries food to the stomach
  • Larynx – voice box
  • Trachea – tube with incomplete rings of cartillage which carries air to the lungs, lined with cells making mucus, cells with cilia (like vili) moves the mucus away from the lungs
  • Left bronchus –  carries air to the lung
  • Bronchioles – carries air to the lungs
  • Alveoli – tiny air sacs adapted for gas exchange
  • Diaphragm – sheets of muscle with a fibrous domed centre. Separated the thorax from the abdomen, helps with breathing movement
  • Ribs – bones that protect and ventilate the lungs
  • Intercostal muscles – pulls the ribs down and in when breathing out
  • External intercostal muscles – pulls the ribs up and out when breathing in
  • Pleural membranes – thin, moist membranes forming an air tight seal around the lungs
  • Pleural fluid – liquid filling the pleural cavity, also acts as lubrication so surfaces of lungs don’t stick to the inside of chest wall

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