2.15 understand the factors that affect the rate of movement of substances into and out of cells, to include the effects of surface area to volume ratio, temperature and concentration gradient

  • High surface area to volume ratio – increased rate of diffusion/osmosis due to the molecules having more space to diffuse into
  • Low surface to volume ratio – decreased rate of diffusion/osmosis as there is less space for the molecules to diffuse into
  • Higher temperature increases the rate of kinetic energy of the particles, so diffusion occurs quicker
  • The steeper the concentration gradient (the greater the difference in concentration between 2 regions) the faster the rate of osmosis
  • The shallower the concentration gradient, the slower the rate of osmosis
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